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System Overview

Background & Ethos
It is really a combination of my circuit interests with my musical desires that have led to the development of this system. While the word 'system' may seem quite technical, I really aim for a fully contained musical setup which offers diverse avenues for involved exploration - once you start cross-patching things, the whole combination begins to take on a life that can be shifted by subtle control of dials and flows. Personally I usually go for the hands-on approach, shifting controls to shape a performance, but modules can also very much run in their own merry ways for automatic evolutions.

It seems that the further I delve into circuitry, the less time I get to actually play and record. My modular use can also tend to long improvisational sessions which are hard to boil down into particular tracks - so it has been something of a quandary as to how to share things. My solution is to share the actual instrument! This has only recently become possible due to my investigation of building ways and materials - it has been a constantly interesting and exciting process to date.

Since I began building my own modular a few years ago I have always used 4mm banana jacks - they are a joy to use and I think they really bring to life such a system. While I was aware that I would be limiting my 'market' by sticking with the banana format for productions, I couldn't possibly go any other way! From that point it really seemed necessary for me to aim for supplying complete systems.

Portability was certainly kept in mind throughout the design process - it seems a shame to keep such systems in the studio as they can be great performance machines, so I aimed for compact size and pretty dense functionality. By standardizing the layouts and colour schemes throughout the system, I hope to make the use quick and intuitive. Detailed control is a key feature of the system - it is my approach to include depth controls for almost all modulation CV inputs, something that also helps keep things compact and quick to work with.

Banana Jacks
It seems to me a shame that 4mm banana jacks are not more widely used - due to their relative obscurity, few people get the chance to experience their great feel and how they lead to fast, intuitive and fun patching. As bananas are stackable there is no need for the many multiples required in 1/4" and Minijack systems and compared with the Minijacks used in other compact systems, bananas win hands down in terms of reliability. And, of course, the colourfulness of bananas helps identify functions and flows within the system.

In fact, I'm hard pressed to come up with many arguments against bananas! Their scarcity does, of course, mean that the range of modules is limited compared to Eurorack for example. They lack the capability of normalization that switching jacks allow though this can simply be replaced by a dedicated switch. It has also been thought that they may lead to signal cross-talk as, unlike 1/4" or Minijack, there is no ground shield on cables. This really is not the case due to the high signal levels used within such modulars.

Banana jacks are only used in a handful of other modular systems - notably Serge, Modcan and Fenix, plus in the control signals of Buchla. There are are certain electronic and aesthetic differences between each system, but that does not completely rule out cross-patching between systems. Differences in signal levels (and banana socket colour schemes!) should be considered and amplification / attenuation / offsetting may be necessary to achieve best results. A common ground connection must also be made between different systems - the BugBrand system has a black banana socket ground terminal on the power supply.

Signals
It has been my aim to make signals as freely routable as possible. Though there are some broad divides between the two main classes of signal, Audio and Control, their boundaries are certainly flexible and cross pollination is encouraged. Consideration of each module's detailed input and output behaviours can certainly help you achieve optimal performance, but general exploration is often the best way to work things out! Specifications are given on individual module pages.

Most signals can be thought of as either Audio (a sound source) or Control (a modulation source) - noting, of course, the bendable rules. For example, the output of VCO modules may be at a sub-audio frequency, or an envelope generator may run at audible rates. Banana connections are coloured and positioned to aid subconcious recogonition as follows:
  • Blue = Control Signal Input
  • Red = Control Signal Output
  • Yellow = Audio Signal Input
  • Green = Audio Signal Output
Signals within the system will generally have a swing of 10 volts peak to peak (10V PtoP). This 10V range is present in two forms:
  • +/-5V = 'Bipolar' swing from -5V to +5V centred around ground (0V) - eg. VCO, LFO, VCA
  • 0-10V = 'Unipolar' swing from 0V to +10V - eg. Gate, Envelope
My approach has been to output all signals at full level to allow free routing possibilities - attenuation is generally carried out at the inputs of modules.

Power
A well specified and stable power supply is required for any modular system. The BugBrand system runs at the +/-15V standard for Frac and this will generally be provided by the custom Power Supply Unit (PSU), a bipolar linear supply capable of 800mA of power - enough for up to three racks of modules. The PSU is an external box and power is supplied to racks using 3pin power cables supplied with systems (see technical for further details).

Power is distributed within the racks via a Power Buss Bars running the entire width and offering 12 polarized power connections using MTA100 headers. Short (18cm) 3-wire cables are supplied with each module to connect power. Note that these headers are smaller than the MTA156 standard used by Blacet and other manufacturers, but the buss bar can be fitted with 10 of these headers as an option if required or I can supply converter cables.

System Sizes and Materials
The BugBrand Modular uses the FracRack size system originated by Paia and today championed by Blacet, Wiard and Metalbox amongst others. Modules are 3 Rack-Units tall (5.25") and multiples of 1.5" wide. The modules of the BugBrand range are designed to be shallow, conforming to a maximum of 3.5" behind the panel to fit comfortably into the 4" deep Rack Frame. This frame holds up to 11 Frac-widths.
Note that Frac modules are NOT interchangeable with Eurorack types due to both size and power differences.

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) material is used both for the front panels and the actual circuitry. The panels use plain 3mm PCB stock, with a front copper layer and blue soldermask onto which the labeling is silk-screened in white. This provides an eye-catching yet durable finish. All circuits are custom designed for fabrication on standard double-sided and through-hole-plated PCBs with pots (dials) mounted on-board.